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How To Read Stock Graphs Article

From Seed Capital to Angel Investors to Venture Capital - Startup Company Financing Model
By Andy Lau

Seed capital/Seed round/Seed funding

Say, 3 people decide to start a business in biotechnology. They do so by incorporating a company limited by shares. They provide the initial capital. They are the only three shareholders. They are the founders of the company. The initial capital they provide is known as seed capital. The process of such injection of capital is known as a seed round or seed funding. The amount of money involved is usually relatively small - e.g., around US$10, 000 or less. The money is primarily used to cover preliminary expenses such as market research and product development.

Angel investors/Angel round

As time goes by, the company needs further funding. The 3 founders, though with unlimited passion for their business, have limited wealth. The company is likely to still be in its preliminary stages - not generating any revenue, or with limited sales and earnings - but looks for further growth. It is not attractive enough for venture capitalists yet. This is when angel investors come in. They bridge the gap between seed capital and venture capital.

Angel investors are individuals who invest in startup businesses that exhibit high growth prospects. They are usually wealthy entrepreneurs or business executives who look to invest in companies that have a synergy with their own businesses, or that have high growth potential in its industry. Since the company does not yet have a profits track record, the risk involved is very high.

Venture capital/Series A financing

Venture capitalists provide venture capital to startup, high growth businesses with a prospect of achieving an IPO within a number of years (e.g., 3-5 years). Venture capitalists generally invest in the form of funds that are privately held limited partnerships (LP or LLC). A venture capital fund is a substantial pooled investment. Such funds may come from institutional investors such as pensions funds, endowment funds, insurance companies, foundations and corporations. Wealthy individuals may also participate in such funds.

Venture capitalists generally ask for convertible preferred shares. Most certainly venture capitalists will also demand a board seat(s) as this gives them more control over the company than being mere shareholders.

For more information, visit - Foreign Investment and Corporate Law in China, Hong Kong, the US.

For more information, visit - From private equity and venture capital to mergers and acquisitions, banking and finance to capital markets.

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